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Endnotes: Gringo Stay Here!

Below are the endnotes from "Gringo Stay Here!" by Andy Baker and David Cupery (Spring 2013 AQ.)

1. A longer and more academically-oriented version of this article can be found here: Andy Baker and David Cupery, “Understanding Anti-Americanism in Latin America: Economic Exchange, Foreign Policy Legacies, and Mass Attitudes toward the Colossus of the North.” Latin American Research Review 48:2 (2013).

2. Michael Scheuer, Imperial Hubris: Why the West is Losing the War on Terror. (Washington, D.C.: Brassey’s, 2004).

3. Author N/A. (September 10, 2009). Hugo Chavez Kicks off Russia visit with emotional speech at a Moscow University. RT [electronic] Retrieved from

4. Author N/A. (December 2, 2011). Huffpost World [electronig] Retrieved from

5. George Yúdice, “U.S. Prepotencia: Latin Americans Respond,” In Andrew Ross and Kristin Ross, eds., Anti-Americanism, (New York: New York University Press, 2004), 69.

6. Alan Mcpherson, “Common Findings and New Directions,” In Alan Mcpherson, ed., Anti-Americanism in Latin America and the Caribbean, (New York: Berghahn Books, 2006), 271.

7. Alan Mcpherson, "Antiyanquismo: Nascent Scholarship, Ancient Sentiments,” In Alan Mcpherson, ed., Anti-Americanism in Latin America and the Caribbean, (New York: Berghahn Books, 2006), 2.

8. Julia Sweig, Friendly Fire: Losing friends and making enemies in the anti-American century," Public Affairs: 3, 8-9.

9. Michael Radu, “A Matter of Identify: The Anti-Americanism of Latin American Intellectualsm,” In Paul Hollander, ed., Understanding Anti-Americanism: Its Origins and Impact at Home and Abroad, (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2004), 162.

10. Glenn J. Dorn, “‘Bradenism’ and Beyond: Argentine Anti-Americanism, 1945-1953,” In Alan Mcpherson, ed., Anti-Americanism in Latin America and the Caribbean. (New York: Berghan Books, 2006), 62.

11. For example, see Nye, Joseph. (2004). Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. New York: Public Affairs; Reed, William. (2003). “Information and Economic Interdependence.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 47: 54-71.

12. Andy Baker, The Market and the Masses in Latin America: Policy Reform and Consumption in Liberalizing Economies, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012).

13. Remaking the Relationship: The United States and Latin America. (Washington, DC: Inter-American Dialogue, 2012), 12.

14. These are average migrant and trade flows for the period 1995 to 2010. Migration data are from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development: International Migration Database 2009,  (Paris, France: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2010). Trade data are from the International Monetary Fund: Direction of Trade Statistics, (Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, 2010). 

15. For the data in the scatterplot, the bivariate correlation between pro-Americanism and the emigration variable is +.62, and that between pro-Americanism and the trade variable is +.71.

16. For more evidence on this, see Baker and Cupery, 2013.

17. The absence of preferential trade agreements between the U.S. and these seven countries is not necessarily a product of popular opposition to such an agreement. In fact, evidence from the 2000s shows substantial majorities in these seven countries to have been in favor of the FTAA (Baker 2009).

18. Inter-American Dialogue, 2012: 8.

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