Politics, Business & Culture in the Americas

Endnotes: Bloc That Trade

Below are the endnotes from Bloc That Trade by Alfie Ulloa Urrutia and Sebastián Marambio (Summer 2015 AQ).

  1. See Estevadeordal, A., et. Al. 2009. “Bridging Regional Trade Agreements in the Americas,” Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID). The remaining 20 percent of intra-regional trade is carried out between countries without trade agreements and focuses on the so-called “missing links”  (Estevadeordal), such as North America with Brazil and Venezuela, and  between Brazil and the Central American and Caribbean countries.
  2. See ‘Global Value Chains’ in <www.oecd.org/sti/ind/global-value-chains.htm>, (accessed on June 1, 2015).
  3. The Index ranges from 0 to 100, where 100 means that there is only intra-industry trade, while 0 means there is no intra-industry trade and there is only inter-industry trade.
  4. The index is taken from  “Synchronized Factories: Latin America and the Caribbean in the Era of Global Supply Chains. Special Report on Integration and Trade, Inter-American Development Bank, Forthcoming 2014,” and is estimated using manufacturing trade data compiled by  the United Nations’ COMTRADE.
  5. Erlinda M. Medalla, “Rules of Origin: Regimes in East Asia and Recommendations for Best Practice” Philippine Institute for Development Studies, Manila, March 2008.
  6. Tsai-Lung Hong, Honigmann, “Economic integration and trade politics in East Asia : rules of origin and production sharing in East Asia,” Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization, Tokyo, March 2006.
  7. Siow Yue Chia, “Trade and Investment Policies and Regional Economic Integration in East Asia,” Asian Development Bank Institute Working Paper # 210. Tokyo 2010.
  8. The third and most difficult agreement to solve is the Mercosur’s negotiation with the United States and Canada.
  9. Antoni Estevadeordal, Jeremy Harris and Kati Suominen, “Multilateralising Preferential Rules of Origin around the World,” Inter-American Development Bank Working Paper # 137, Washington, November 2009.
  10. See “Cumulation of Origin” in www.roughgate.com/free-trade/cumulation-of-origin/, (accessed June 1, 2015).




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