Politics, Business & Culture in the Americas

Endnotes: Decoding the Digital War

Below are the endnotes from “Decoding the Digital War” by Ellery Roberts Biddle (Spring 2015 AQ.)

  1. See data from “Cuba Profile, 2013,” International Telecommunication Union ICT-Eye, <www.itu.int/net4/itu-d/icteye/CountryProfileReport.aspx?countryID=63> (accessed April 10, 2015).
  2. “Country Profile: Cuba,” OpenNet Initiative, May 9, 2007, <opennet.net/sites/opennet.net/files/cuba.pdf> (accessed April 10, 2015).
  3. Larry Press, “Cuban Computer Networks and their Impact,” in Cuba in Transition, Volume 6: Papers and Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Meeting of the Association for the Study of the Cuban Economy (University of Miami, Florida, August 8-10, 1996), <http://www.ascecuba.org/c/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/v06-43press2.fm_.pdf> (accessed April 10, 2015).
  4. Bert Hoffman, The Politics of the Internet in Third World Development: Challenges in Contrasting Regimes with Case Studies of Costa Rica and Cuba (New York: Routledge, 2004).
  5. Ellery Roberts Biddle, “Digital Rations,” Policy Innovations, February 3, 2011, <www.policyinnovations.org/ideas/briefings/data/000195> (accessed April 10, 2015).
  6. Ellery Roberts Biddle, “Cuba: Cyberwar? Video Sparks Debate, Anger, Skepticism,” Global Voices Online, February 16, 2011, <www.globalvoicesonline.org/2011/02/16/cuba-cyberwar-video-sparks-debate-anger-skepticism> (accessed April 10, 2015).   
  7. Carmen Lira Saade, “‘Llegue a estar muerto, pero resucité,’” interview with Fidel Castro, La Jornada, August 30, 2010, <www.jornada.unam.mx/2010/08/30/index.php?article=002e1pol&section=politica> (accessed April 10, 2015).
  8. Yoani Sánchez. Interview by Ellery Roberts Biddle. Havana, Cuba, July 28, 2009. Translation by author.
  9. “Statement in Reference to the Associated Press Article on ‘Cuban Twitter’ on April 3, 2014,” USAID Press Office, April 3, 2014,<www.usaid.gov/news-information/press-releases/apr-3-2014-statement-reference-associated-press-article-cuban-twitter> (accessed April 10, 2015).  
  10. Desmond Butler, Jack Gillum and Alberto Arce, “US secretly built ‘Cuban Twitter’ to stir unrest,” Associated Press, April 3, 2014, <www.bigstory.ap.org/article/us-secretly-built-cuban-twitter-stir-unrest> (accessed April 10, 2015).
  11. Miguel Díaz-Canel, “El derecho de todos a Internet supone deberes en relación con su uso adecuado,” Cubadebate, February 21, 2015, <www.cubadebate.cu/opinion/2015/02/21/intervencion-de-diaz-canel-en-la-clausura-del-taller-nacional-de-infor%C2%ADmatizacion-y-ciberseguridad/#.VQHm1vnF98G> (accessed April 10, 2015).
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