Politics, Business & Culture in the Americas

Endnotes: [i]Cholera and the Road to Modernity: Lessons from One Latin American Epidemic for Another[/i]

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1.  Sack D (2011) How many cholera deaths can be averted in Haiti? Lancet 377:1214-1216.

2.  Ministère de la Santé et de la Population (2012) Rapport du 14 Juin 2012. Available: http://www.mspp.gouv.ht/site/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=120&Itemid=1 (accessed June 19, 2012).

3.  For more on biosocial complexity of epidemic disease see Farmer P (1999) Infections and Inequalities: The Modern Plagues. Berkeley (CA): University of California Press.

4.  Ivers LC, Walton DA (2012) The “first” case of cholera in Haiti: lessons for global health. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 86:36–38.

5.  Harris J, LaRocque R, Charles R, Mazumder R, Khan A, et al (2010) Cholera’s western front. Lancet 376:1961–1965.

6.  Ministère de la Santé et de la Population 2012.

7.  Chin CS, Sorenson J, Harris JB, Robins WP, Charles RC (2011) The Origin of the Haitian Cholera Outbreak Strain. New England Journal of Medicine 164: 1.

8.  Gaffga NH, Tauxe RV, Mintz ED (2007) Cholera: a new homeland in Africa? American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 77:705-713.

9.  Ministère de la Santé et de la Population 2012.

10.  Butler D (2011) No quick fix for Haiti cholera. Nature 478, 295-296.

11.  Colwell R (1996) Global climate and infectious disease: the cholera paradigm. Science  274: 2025–31.

12.  Knox R (2012) Scientists find new wrinkly in how cholera got to Haiti. NPR, available: http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2012/06/18/155311990/scientists-find-new-wrinkle-in-how-cholera-got-to-haiti (accessed June 19, 2012).

13.  U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012) Notes from the field: identification of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Inaba, biotype El Tor Strain—Haiti, March 2012. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 61: 309.

14.  Hasan HN, Choi SY, Eppinger M, Clark PW, Chen A (2012) Genomic diversity of 2010 Haitian cholera outbreak strains. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1207359109

15.  Tappero JW and Tauxe RV (2011) Lessons Learned during Public Health Response to Cholera Epidemic in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases 17;11:2087-2093.

16.  Office of the Special Envoy for Haiti (2012) Unpublished Data. See, for example, http://www.haitispecialenvoy.org/relief-and-recovery/ (accessed June 19, 2012).

17.  Ivers L, Farmer P, Almazor C, Léandre F (2010) Five complementary interventions to slow cholera: Haiti. Lancet 376: 2048–2051.

18.  Farmer PE, Almazor CP, Bahnsen ET, Barry D, Bazile J, et al (2011) Meeting Cholera’s Challenge to Haiti and the World: A Joint Statement on Cholera Prevention and Care. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases; 5 (5): e1145; Reyburn R, Deen JL, Grais RF, Bhattacharya SK, Sur D, et al (2011) The case for reactive mass oral cholera vaccinations. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 5: e952.

19.  Sur D, Lopez AL, Kanungo S, Paisley A, Manna B et al (2009) Efficacy and safety of a modified killed-whole-cell oral cholera vaccine in India: an interim analysis of a cluster-randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 374:1694–702; Sur D, Kanungo S, Sah B, Manna B, Ali M et al (2011) Efficacy of a Low-Cost, Inactivated Whole-Cell Oral Cholera Vaccine. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 5 (10).

20.  Jeuland M, Cook J, Poulos C, Clemens J, Whittington D (2009) Cost-effectiveness of new-generation oral cholera vaccines: a multisite analysis. ISPOR 12: 899-908.

21.  Andrews JR, Basu S (2011) Transmission dynamics and control of cholera in Haiti: an epidemic model. Lancet 377: 1248-55.

22.  Chao DL, Halloran ME, Longini IM (2011) Vaccination strategies for epidemic cholera in Haiti with implications for the developing world. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1102149108.

23.  Ivers L, Farmer P, Pape JW (2012) Oral cholera vaccine and integrated cholera control in Haiti. Lancet 379 :2026-202.

24.  Ivers L, Farmer P, Almazor C, Léandre F (2010) Five complementary interventions to slow cholera: Haiti. Lancet 376: 2048–2051.

25.  Sack 2011.

26.  See, for example, Tappero and Tauxe 2011; Periago MR, Frieden TR, Tappero JW, De Cock KM, Aasen B, Andrus JK (2012) Elimination of Cholera Transmission in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Lancet 379; 9812: 21-27.

27.  World Health Organization (2010) WHO Cholera vaccines: WHO position paper. Weekly Epidemiological Record 85: 118

28.  Tauxe R, Saninario L, Tapia R, Libel M (1994) The Latin American epidemic. In Wachsmuth K, Blake P, Olsvik O, eds. Vibrio cholerae and cholerae: Molecular to Global Perspectives. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Press, 321–344.

29.  Kumate J, Sepulveda J, Gutierrez G (1998) Cholera epidemiology in Latin America and perspectives for eradication Bulletin of the Institute Pasteur 96; 217-226.

30.  Tauxe et al 1994.

31.  Seas C, Miranda J, Gil AI, Leon-Barua R, Patz JA, Huq A, et al (2000) New insights on the emergence of cholera in Latin America during 1991: the Peruvian experience. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 62: 513–517.

32.  Colwell 1996.

33.  Huq A, Small EB, West PA, Huq MI, Rahman R, Colwell RR (1983) Ecological relationships between Vibrio cholerae and planktonic crustacean copepods. Applied Environmental Microbiology 45: 275–283.

34.  Seas et al 2000.

35.  Ibid.

36.  Cueto M (2003) Stigma and Blame during an Epidemic: Cholera in Peru, 1991. In Armus D Ed. Disease in the History of Modern Latin America: From Malaria to AIDS: Durham: Duke University Press.

37.  Ibid.

38.  Sepulveda J, Valdespino JL, Garcia-Garcia L (2006) Cholera in Mexico: The paradoxical benefits of the last pandemic. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 10: 4-13; Gaffga et al 2007; Tauxe et al 1994; Tappero and Tauxe 2011.

39.  Rosenberg C (1962) The Cholera Years: The United States in 1932, 1949, and 1966. Chicago (IL): University of Chicago Press, Introduction.

40.  Gaffga et al 2007.

41.  Koo D, Traverso H, Libel M, Drasbek C, Tauxe R, Bennet B (1997) El cólera epidémico en América Latina de 1991 a 1993: Implicaciones de las definiciones de casos usados en la Vigilancia Epidemiológica. Pan. American Journal of Public Health 1: 85-91.

42.  Kumate et al

43.  Cueto 2003, 270.

44.  Ibid.

45.  Ibid, 279.

46.  Ibid, 275

47.  Ibid, 284-5.

48.  Ibid, 278.

49.  Koo et al 1997.

50.  Ibid.

51.  Briggs C (2003) Death in the Delta, in Briggs C, Mantini-Briggs C Eds. Stories in the Time of Cholera: Racial Profiling During a Medical Nightmare. Berkeley: University of California Press; 1-18.

52.  World Health Organization/United Nations Children’s Fund, Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation (2010) Progress on sanitation and drinking water: 2010 update: p. 7. Available: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/9789241563956/en/index.html

53.  Ibid, 25

54.  Ibid, 8.

55.  Ibid, 39.

56.  Ibid, 47.

57.  World Health Organization (2009) Country Profile of Environmental Burden of Disease, Geneva.  Available: http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/national/countryprofile/peru.pdf

58.  Pan American Health Organization (2007), Health Systems Profile: El Salvador. Available: http://new.paho.org/hq/dmdocuments/2010/Health_System_Profile-El_Salvador_2008.pdf

59.  Farmer 1999.

60.  Farmer PE (2003) Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor. Berkeley (CA): University of California Press.

61.  Colwell 1996; Seas et al 2000.

62.  Kumate et al 1998.

63.  Rosenberg C (1962) The Cholera Years: The United States in 1932, 1949, and 1966. Chicago (IL): University of Chicago Press, 2.

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