Politics, Business & Culture in the Americas

Endnotes: Race and Ethnicity in Latin America

Below are the endnotes from Race and Ethnicity in Latin America by Judith A. Morrison (Summer 2015 AQ).

The views expressed in this article are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect those of the institution with which she is affiliated.

Molinas Vega, Jose R.; Barros, Ricardo Paes de; Saavedra Chanduvi, Jaime; Giugale, Marcelo; Cord, Louise J.; Pessino, Carola; Hasan, Amer. 2011. Do our children have a chance? A human opportunity report for Latin America and the Caribbean. Directions in development ; poverty. Washington, DC: World Bank. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2011/01/15483056/children-chance-human-opportunity-report-latin-america-caribbean

African descendants (30% of the population) and Indigenous peoples (10% of the population). CEPAL. 2000. Etnicidad, ‘raza’ y equidad en América Latina y el Caribe. Santiago: CEPAL. http://www.cepal.org/publicaciones/xml/4/6714/lcr_1967_rev.21.pdf

PERLA (Project on Ethnicity and Race in Latin America). 2013. “Table: Afro-descendant and Indigenous Population in Latin America by Country.” Princeton, NJ: Princeton University. https://perla.princeton.edu/table-afro-descendant-and-indigenous-population-in-latin-america-by-country/

Social inclusion by race and ethnicity is a concept that it is most relevant for urban communities. Many rural and traditional Indigenous and African descendant peoples prefer the concept of development with identity, specifically the respect for their autonomous ways of life and traditional beliefs (cosmovisión).

CEPAL. 2010. Achieving the Millennium Development Goals with Equity in Latin America and the Caribbean: Progress and Challenges. Santiago: CEPAL. http://www.cepal.org/publicaciones/xml/5/39995/lcg2460_MDG_ingles.pdf

IDB calculations, based on household survey and census data completed in 2014

Inchauste, G. and C. Cesar. 2010. “Inclusión Social en Panamá: La Población Indígena.” Washington, DC: BID. http://publications.iadb.org/handle/11319/2560. Extreme poverty is defined as average daily consumption of $1.25 or less, poverty is defined as $2.00 or less.

IDB calculations, based on household survey and census data completed in 2014.

IDB staff calculations of National Census results, reported in Country at a Glance reports. Individuals 15 and over with University Education Colombia, 2005, (5% African descendants and 9% total); Costa Rica, 2011, (12.3% African descendants 20.1% total). Panama, is the country that has retained high university completion rates for African descendants over several reporting years, in 2010 16.7% of African descendants had completed university compared to 13.1% for the country as a whole.

IDB staff calculations based on household surveys, 2014

Garavito, Cardenas, Oviedo, Villamizar, La discriminación racial en el trabajo: Un studio experimental en Bogotá, 2013 http://www.dejusticia.org/files/r2_actividades_recursos/fi_name_recurso.337.pdf

Inter-American Development Bank (2015). Gender and Diversity Sector Framework Document. http://www.iadb.org/document.cfm?id=39435256. Due the communal nature of many indigenous territories they may be less likely to receive access to services, or be contemplated for service provision due to perceived inability to pay (or inability to recover the cost of the initial investment). As a result many indigenous communities are lower priority for receiving electricity.

Barber, S.L., S.M. Bertozzi and P.J. Gertler. 2007. “Variations in Prenatal Care Quality For the Rural Poor in Mexico.” Health Affairs, 26, no. 3: pp. 310-323. http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/26/3/w310.short

Some of these challenges in quality may be related to access to public vs. private health care systems see IDB, 2014 and IDB forthcoming. Indigenous peoples may be more likely to use the public health care system, which suggests that programs to improve health care quality and access may have higher returns for racial and ethnic populations.

Paixao, Carvano, et al. 2010. Relatorio Annual das Desigualdades Raciais no Brasil. http://www.laeser.ie.ufrj.br/EN/relatorios%20pdf/Relat%C3%B3rio_2009-2010.pdf

Perreira, K.M., and E.E. Telles. 2014. “The Color of Health: Skin Color, ethnoracial classification, and discrimination in the health of Latin Americans.” Social Science and Medicine 116: pp. 241-250.

Barber, S.L., S.M. Bertozzi and P.J. Gertler. 2007. “Variations in Prenatal Care Quality For the Rural Poor in Mexico.” Health Affairs, 26, no. 3: pp. 310-323. http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/26/3/w310.short

CEPAL. 2014. Mujeres Indígenas: Nuevas protagonistas para nuevas políticas. Santiago: CEPAL. http://www.cepal.org/es/publicaciones/36779-mujeres-indigenas-nuevas-protagonistas-para-nuevas-politicas

Hall, G. and H. Patrinos (editors). 2006. Indigenous Peoples, Poverty and Human Development in Latin America. 1994-2004. Palgrave Macmilan. http://elibrary.worldbank.org/doi/pdf/10.1596/978-1-4039-9938-2

Hall, G. and H. Patrinos (editors). 2012. Indigenous Peoples, Poverty, and Development. Cambridge University Press.

IDB-CEQ, Lustig, Nora (2015), “Fiscal Policy and Ethno-Racial Inequality in Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala and Uruguay.” CEQ Working Paper No. 22, Center for Inter-American Policy and Research and Department of Economics, Tulane University and Inter-American Dialogue and Morrison, Judith (2015) Inclusive Growth: Fiscal Policy and Social Programs Evidence of the Impact on Ethno-Racial Equality Paper Presented at the Latin Americas Studies Association Conference 2015, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Opportunidades (Mexico), Bolsa Familia, Brasil sem Miseria, Juventude Viva, Brasil Quilombola (Brasil)

IDB calculations based on existing census and household survey data calculated in 2015. The total Indigenous population is 10%, however 5.3% of the inhabitants of the region speak an Indigenous language.

Traditional Maroon or Palenque lands, formally recognized by the government.

Some of the systems and tools are publically available at http://monitoramento.seppir.gov.br and are best visualized using Mozilla or Google Chrome. Related visualization tools can be found at: http://www.iadb.org/en/topics/gender-indigenous-peoples-and-african-descendants/data-and-statistics,18666.html


The neighborhoods of Ipiranga and Vila Maria have large Afro-Brazilian populations of over 30% and are very close to Pinheiros, Sé, and Vila Mariana which have the highest concentration of jobs in the city.

22,719 Afro-Peruvian households were registered in 23 provinces and 73 districts.

A very preliminary overview was undertaken in a brief Inter-American Development Bank working paper by the late Brazilian researcher Jonas Zoninsein (2001), however, a methodology for completing this exercise for Latin America has not been fully explored.

In 1965, the US Census Bureau designed a new approach to measure the cost of discrimination against nonwhites. This methodology accounts for the economic losses in terms of GDP from two domains: (i) inefficiencies in the use of labor force arising from failure to fully use existing education, skills, and (ii) the experience of the population, and failure to develop fully potential education, skills, and experience. The calculations are translated into gains in GDP that may be obtained if exclusion were eliminated. 

Alesina, Alberto F, Stelios Michalopoulos, and Elias Papaioannou. 2012. “Ethnic Inequality” NBER WP 18512, CEPR Discussion Paper 9225. https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/18512.html

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