Politics, Business & Culture in the Americas

Endnotes: [i]Five Ways to Improve Urban Transportation and Reduce Its Environmental Effects[/i]


  1. Cesar A. Calderon, and Luis Serven, “The Effects of Infrastructure Development on Growth and Income Distribution,” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 3400. September 2004, <http://ssrn.com/abstract=625277> (accessed September 10, 2009).
  2. Cecilia Briceno-Garmendia, Antonio Estache and Nemat Shafik, “Infrastructure Services in Developing Countries: Access, Quality, Costs, and Policy Reform,” World Bank Policy Research Paper No. 3468, December 2004, <http://ssrn.com/abstract=643265> (accessed September 10, 2009).
  3. According to the Stern Report, Power contributed 24 percent of greenhouse emissions, followed by Land Use (18 percent), Transport (14 percent), Agriculture (14 percent), Industry (14 percent). Nicholas Stern, “Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change,” UNFCC, 2008, <http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2008/tp/03.pdf> (accessed September 10, 2009).
  4. These data correspond to 2005. For a complete database of greenhouse gas emissions data, see the Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) of the World Resources Institute, available at <http://cait.wri.org/> (accessed September 10, 2009).
  5. Kevin A. Baumert, Timothy Herzog, and Jonathan Pershing, “Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data and International Climate Policy,” World Resources Institute, December 2005 <http://pdf.wri.org/navigating_numbers.pdf> (accessed September 10, 2009).
  6. This figures show the variations between 2002 and 2020, (Baumert).
  7. Some studies conducted in the U.S. show a higher pattern of carbon emissions per household on suburbs than in the central areas of cities. Available at <http://htaindex.cnt.org/mapping_tool.php?theme_menu=3&region=New%20York–Northern%20New%20Jersey–Long%20Island,%20NY–NJ–CT–PA> (accessed September 10, 2009).
  8. Nicholas Stern, “Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change,” UNFCC, 2008, <http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2008/tp/03.pdf> (accessed September 10, 2009).
  9. World Bank, “Cities on the Move: A World Bank Urban Transport Strategy Review,” World Business Council for Sustainable Development, 2002, <http://wbcsd.org> (accessed on September 10, 2009).
  10. Robert Shapiro, Kevin A. Hassett and Frank S. Arnold, “Conserving Energy and Preserving the Environment: The Role of Public Transportation,” 2002.
  11. For an interesting analysis of some of the challenges related to the incorporation of cost benefit analysis in the developing world, see: Michael Livermore, “El Análisis Costo-Beneficio de Políticas Ambientales en Países en Desarrollo,” Estudios Públicos Nº 115, 2009, <http://www.publictransportation.org/pdf/reports/shapiro_report.pdf> (accessed September 10, 2009).
  12. Livermore.
  13. The agency in charge of the CDM has approved that policies may be considered as part of this mechanism. They are called “Programmatic CDMs,” which are voluntary and coordinated actions by a private or public entity that implement a policy, measure or stated goal leading to emission reductions or removals


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