Politics, Business & Culture in the Americas

Endnotes: Not Poor, But Not Middle Class Yet

Below are the endnotes from Not Poor, But Not Middle Class Yet by Luis F. Lopez-Calva (Fall 2012 AQ)

1. “On the Edge of Uncertainty: Poverty Reduction in Latin America and the Caribbean during the Great Recession and Beyond” (Poverty and Labor Brief), The World Bank: 2011.

2. See the trends shown in Lopez-Calva and Ortiz-Juarez (2011) using standard absolute definitions of middle class for Mexico, Chile and Peru during times of economic slowdown.

3. For a discussion of relative measures, see Cruces, G., L.F. Lopez-Calva & D. Battiston, “Down and Out or Up and In? In Search of Latin America‘s Elusive Middle Class,” Inclusive Development Series No. 3. RBLAC-UNDP, New York.

4. See for example, Banerjee, A. V. & E. Duflo, “What is middle class about the middle classes around the world?” Journal of Economic Perspectives: 2008, and Ravallion, M., “The Developing World’s Bulging (but Vulnerable) Middle Class,” World Development: 2010.

5. This condition of beings or doings are called ‘Functionings’, commonly used in development economics, and denote the set of activities and achievements that a person is capable of, following Sen, K., “Commodities and Capabilities,” Oxford: Oxford University Press: 1985.

6. Lustig, Nora, Luis F. López-Calva and Eduardo Ortiz-Juarez: “Declining Inequality in Latin America since the 2000s: The Case of Argentina, Brazil and Mexico,” Forthcoming, World Development: 2011.

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