Politics, Business & Culture in the Americas

Endnotes: Putin’s Game

Below are the endnotes for “Putin’s Game” by Diana Negroponte (Winter 2015 AQ.)

  1. “Russia writes off 90% of Cuba’s debt ahead of Putin’s ‘big tour’ to L. America,” Russia Today, July 11, 2014, www.rt.com/business/172020-russia-cuba-debt-writeoff.
  2. Yuri Paniyev, “Russia and Nicaragua to cooperate on construction of interoceanic canal,” Russia Beyond the Headlines, May 14, 2014, www.rbth.com/international/2014/05/14/russia_and_nicaragua_to_cooperate_on_construction_of_new_intero_36645.html.
  3. “Rusos daran seguridad al Gran Canal,” La Prensa, September 9, 2014, www.laprensa.com.ni/2014/09/12/nacionales/211811-rusos-daran-seguridad-al-gran-canal.
  4. “Armas rusas en Nicaragua,” La Nación, September 9, 2014, www.nacion.com/opinion/editorial/Armas-rusas-Nicaragua_0_1438056188.html.
  5. Patricia Rey Mallén, “Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov’s Trip To Latin America May Be Aimed At Irking U.S.,” International Business Times, May 2, 2014, www.ibtimes.com/russian-foreign-minister-sergei-lavrovs-trip-latin-america-may-be-aimed-irking-us-1579671.
  6. “Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov’s speech and answers to questions during International Youth Forum Seliger” (delivered at International Youth Forum, Tver Oblast, Russia, August 27, 2014), Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, www.mid.ru/brp_4.nsf/0/B3B8FB125EDCD9D744257D42003464CD.
  7. “Rosneft Brazil and HRT Sign Final Agreements on the Solimoes Project,” Rosneft Co., March 24, 2014, www.rosneft.com/news/pressrelease/24032014.html.
  8. “Russian Helicopters to showcase new models in Chile,” Rostec Co. press release, March 29, 2014, on the Rostec website, www.rostec.ru/content/files/press-rel/press-release-RH-25_03.pdf.
  9. “Defense Minister Shoigu to Push Russian Arms Sales in Brazil, Peru,” Sputnik International, October 9, 2013, www.sputniknews.com/military/20131009/184018090/Defense-Minister-Shoigu-to-Push-Russian-Arms-Sales-in-Brazil-Peru.html.
  10. “Ukraine-related Sanctions,” U.S. Department of the Treasury, September 12, 2014, www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/ofac-enforcement/pages/20140912.aspx.
  11. “Russia announces ‘full embargo’ on most food from US, EU,” Deutsche Welle, August 7, 2014, http://www.dw.de/russia-announces-full-embargo-on-most-food-from-us-eu/a-17838717.
  12. “Russia to ban all US agricultural products, EU fruit & vegetable imports- watchdog,” Russia Today, August 6, 2014, www.rt.com/business/178540-russia-ban-us-poultry.
  13. “UE critica a Latinoamérica por alianza con Rusia,” Voz de América, August 13, 2014, www.voanoticias.com/content/ue-critica-latinoamerica-aliarse-rusia/2412049.html.
  14. “Sechin Leads Delegation to Nicaragua,” The Moscow Times, September 19, 2008, www.themoscowtimes.com/sitemap/free/2008/9/article/sechin-leads-delegation-to-nicaragua/371058.html.
  15. Bloomberg Commodity Index, www.bloomberg.com/quote/BCOM:IND/chart.
  16. Igor Ivanov, “Rusia y América Latina: Relaciones de cara al futuro,” Embassy of the Russian Federation in Chile, January 2001, www.chile.mid.ru/0ld/putlag5.html.
  17. Ibid.
  18. Ibid., 4.
  19. Author’s estimate based upon Russian trade figures for individual countries in Latin America and Cuba.
  20. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, “Concept of the Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation,” February 12, 2013, www.mid.ru/brp_4.nsf/0/76389FEC168189ED44257B2E0039B16D.
  21. Hua Shengdun, “China presses on with business in Latin America,” China Daily USA, October 24, 2014, www.usa.chinadaily.com.cn/world/2014-10/24/content_18796267.htm.
  22. Amos Irwin and Kevin Gallagher, “Chinese Finance to Latin America tops $100 Billion Since 2005,” Inter-American Dialogue, April 2, 2014, www.thedialogue.org/page.cfm?pageID=32&pubID=3563.
  23. J.F. Hornbeck, “ US-Latin America Trade and Investment in the 21st Century: What’s Next for Deepening Integration?,” Working Paper (Inter-American Dialogue, January 2014), www10.iadb.org/intal/intalcdi/PE/2014/13718.pdf.
  24.  “Russian Federation,” Trade Map (International Trade Centre, 2013), www.intracen.org/layouts/CountryTemplate.aspx?pageid=47244645034&id=47244652485.
  25. “Russia and Latin America enhance cooperation,” Telesur, August 14, 2014, www.telesurtv.net/english/telesuragenda/Russia-and-Latin-America-enhance-cooperation-20140814-0052.html.
  26.  “Lavrov’s Argentina trip revives LNG rumours,” Interfax, June 5, 2013, www.interfaxenergy.com/gasdaily/article/2340/lavrovs-argentina-trip-revives-lng-rumours.
  27. “Nuclear Power in Argentina,” World Nuclear Association, November 28, 2014, www.world-nuclear.org/info/Country-Profiles/Countries-A-F/Argentina.
  28. “Atucha 3 contract signed,” World Nuclear News, September 4, 2014, www.world-nuclear-news.org/NN-Atucha-3-contract-signed-0409145.html.
  29. Patrick E. Tyler, “Putin, in Cuba, Signals Priority Of Ties to U.S.,” The New York Times, December 16, 2000, www.nytimes.com/2000/12/16/world/putin-in-cuba-signals-priority-of-ties-to-us.html.
  30. Ivanov, “Rusia y América Latina,” 5.
  31. “Cuba Profile,” Latin American Herald Tribune, www.laht.com/article.asp?ArticleId=393167&CategoryId=13848.
  32. Lyuba Pronina, “Russia to Sell Cuba Five Ilyushin, Tupolev Planes for Airline,” Bloomberg, April 10, 2006, www.laht.com/article.asp?ArticleId=393167&CategoryId=13848.
  33. Marc Frank, “Russia negotiating Cuba debt and fresh credit,” Caribbean Net News, September 28, 2006, www.caribbeannewsnow.com/caribnet/cgi-script/csArticles/articles/000034/003448.htm.
  34. Lyuba Pronina, “Russia to Sell Cuba Five Ilyushin, Tupolev Planes for Airline,” Bloomberg, April 10, 2006, www.laht.com/article.asp?ArticleId=393167&CategoryId=13848.
  35. Older Russian aircraft, such as the Ilyushin 62 were no longer considered safe by a number of Western governments with the resulting denial of landing rights.
  36. “Sechin to Visit Cuba for Energy Talks,” The Moscow Times, July 29, 2008, www.themoscowtimes.com/sitemap/free/2008/7/article/sechin-to-visit-cuba-for-energy-talks/369275.html.
  37. “Cuba and Russia sign trade deals,” Los Angeles Times, November 10, 2008, www.latimesblogs.latimes.com/laplaza/2008/11/cuba-and-russia.html.
  38. “Russian Oil Company JSC Zarubezhneft Opens Office in Cuba,” Latin American Herald Tribune, June 25, 2010, www.laht.com/article.asp?CategoryId=14510&ArticleId=359272.
  39. Alexei Anishchuk,”Russia leases planes to Cuba, writes off Soviet debt,” Reuters, February 21, 2013, www.reuters.com/article/2013/02/22/us-russia-cuba-deals-idUSBRE91L04J20130222.
  40. The 2013 lease consisted of 3 Ilyushin-96-400 long-haul jets, 3AN-158 regional planes and 2 TU-204SM mid-range aircraft.  See “Russian leases planes to Cuba, writes off Soviet debt,” Reuters, February 21, 2013, www.reuters.com/article/2013/02/22/us-russia-cuba-deals-idUSBRE91L04J20130222.
  41. Ibid.    
  42. “Rusia: reto comercial para Nicaragua,” El Nuevo Diario, February 19, 2014, www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/economia/311647.  
  43. Ibid.
  44. “Country Profile: Venezuela,” Nuclear Threat Initiative, July 2013, www.nti.org/country-profiles/venezuela.
  45. Daniel Cancel and Corina Rodriguez Pons, “Chavez’s Russian Bank Overtakes Citigroup in Venezuelan Bond Underwriting,” Bloomberg, November 7, 2011, www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-11-07/chavez-s-russian-bank-beats-citigroup-in-venezuela-bond-sales.html.
  46. Ibid.
  47. Stephen Bierman and Stepan Kravchenko, “Putin Sees Venezuela Oil Deals Moving Ahead After Chavez,” Bloomberg, March 6, 2013, www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-03-06/putin-sees-venezuela-oil-deals-moving-ahead-after-chavez.html.
  48. Firman acuerdos gigantes petroleras Rosneft y Pdvsa, Noticias Martí, July 2, 2013,  www.martinoticias.com/content/pdvsas-rosneft-cooperacion-putin-maduro-/24037.html.
  49.  “Rosneft and Venezuelan Corporacion Venezolana del Petroleo Sign Joint Venture Agreement,” Rosneft Co. press release, May 24, 2013, on the Rosneft website, www.rosneft.com/news/pressrelease/24052013.html.
  50. Ibid.
  51. Ibid.  



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